Tee Rosette Type Strain Gauge
Specification of strain gauge:
Our Strain Gauge name rules:
Strain Gauge Catalogue
BB(BAB)250º C Series
If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier and longer, both changes resulting in an increase of electrical resistance end-to-end. Conversely, if a strip of conductive metal is placed under compressive force (without buckling), it will broaden and shorten. If these stresses are kept within the elastic limit of the metal strip (so that the strip does not permanently deform), the strip can be used as a measuring element for physical force, the amount of applied force inferred from measuring its resistance.
Such a device is called a strain gauge. Strain gauges are frequently used in mechanical engineering research and development to measure the stresses generated by machinery. Aircraft component testing is one area of application, tiny strain-gauge strips glued to structural members, linkages, and any other critical component of an airframe to measure stress. Most strain gauges are smaller than a postage stamp.
A strain gauge's conductors are very thin: If made of round wire, about 1/1000 inch in diameter. Alternatively, strain gauge conductors may be thin strips of metallic film deposited on a nonconducting substrate material called the carrier. The latter form of strain gauge is represented in the previous illustration. The name "bonded gauge" is given to strain gauges that are glued to a larger structure under stress (called the test specimen). The task of bonding strain gauges to test specimens may appear to be very simple, but it is not. "Gauging" is a craft in its own right, absolutely essential for obtaining accurate, stable strain measurements. It is also possible to use an unmounted gauge wire stretched between two mechanical points to measure tension, but this technique has its limitations.
Typical strain gauge resistances range from 30 Ω To 3 kΩ (unstressed). This resistance may change only a fraction of a percent for the full force range of the gauge, given the limitations imposed by the elastic limits of the gauge material and of the test specimen. Forces great enough to induce greater resistance changes would permanently deform the test specimen and/or the gauge conductors themselves, thus ruining the gauge as a measurement device. Thus, in order to use the strain gauge as a practical instrument, we must measure extremely small changes in resistance with high accuracy.
Such demanding precision calls for a bridge measurement circuit. Unlike the Wheatstone bridge shown in the last chapter using a null-balance detector and a human operator to maintain a state of balance, a strain gauge bridge circuit indicates measured strain by the degree of imbalance, and uses a precision voltmeter in the center of the bridge to provide an accurate measurement of that imbalance:
Typically, the rheostat arm of the bridge (R2 in the diagram) is set at a value equal to the strain gauge resistance with no force applied. The two ratio arms of the bridge (R1 and R3) are set equal to each other. Thus, with no force applied to the strain gauge, the bridge will be symmetrically balanced and the voltmeter will indicate zero volts, representing zero force on the strain gauge. As the strain gauge is either compressed or tensed, its resistance will decrease or increase, respectively, thus unbalancing the bridge and producing an indication at the voltmeter. This arrangement, with a single element of the bridge changing resistance in response to the measured variable (mechanical force), is known as a quarter-bridge circuit.
As the distance between the strain gauge and the three other resistances in the bridge circuit may be substantial, w